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The study of Vedic India is still beset by “the Aryan problem,” which often clouds the genuine search for historical insight into this period.

That there was a , and the Mitanni empire invoked several deities—Indara, Uruvna, Mitira, and the Nasatyas (names that occur in the Rigveda as Indra, Varuna, Mitra, and the Ashvins).

Because the texts were continually revised, they cannot be dated accurately to the early period.

The Dharma-sutra texts of this period became the nuclei of the socio-legal Dharma-shastras of later centuries.

If such a distinction is recognized, the entire corpus of Vedic literature can be interpreted as recording the gradual evolution of the concept of kingship from earlier clan organization.

Among the clans there is little distinction between Aryan and non-Aryan, but the hymns refer to a people, called the , the Vedic sacrifice conducted by the priest, whose ritual actions ensured prosperity and imbued the chief with valour.

Few events of political importance are related in the hymns.

Perhaps the most impressive is a description of the battle of the 10 chiefs or kings: when Vishvamitra with Vasishtha, Vishvamitra organized a confederacy of 10 tribes, including the Puru, Yadu, Turvashas, Anu, and Druhyu, which went to war against Sudas.

The ceremonies lasted many days and involved a reciprocal economy of gift exchange between the chief and the priest, by which the latter received wealth in kind and the former established status, prosperity, and proximity to the gods.

The principal literary sources from this period are the Sama-, the Yajur-, and the Atharvaveda (mainly ritual texts), the Brahmanas (manuals on ritual), and the Upanishads (Upanisads) and Aranyakas (collections of philosophical and metaphysical discourses).

Associated with the corpus are the texts, largely explanatory aids to the other works, comprising manuals on sacrifices and ceremonies, domestic observances, and social and legal relations.

By the end of the period, clan identity had changed gradually to territorial identity, and the areas of settlement came eventually to form states.

The people beyond the Aryavarta were termed the Kuru-Pancala, which incorporated the two families of Kuru and Puru (and the earlier Bharatas) and of which the Pancala was a confederation of lesser-known tribes.

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